Absence of Toilets Means Presence of Death

Fundamental Failure
Having your physical, mental, and emotional needs in a
particular situation neglected or denied, setting you up
to fail despite your own efforts.

Around the world, 2.3 billion people have no toilets or latrines. Close to 900 million of them defecate in gutters, behind bushes, or in open bodies of water. Open defecation is responsible for the deaths of approximately 361,000 children under age 5 every year.

“Open defecation perpetuates a vicious cycle of disease and poverty. The countries where open defection is most widespread have the highest number of deaths of children aged under 5 years as well as the highest levels of malnutrition and poverty, and big disparities of wealth.“

Children die before they get a real chance to live because adults who could make a difference neglect their needs. Preventable deaths are fundamental failure.

World Health Organization


Paula M. Kramer
© 2015 to the present
All rights reserved.

Posts on this blog alternate with posts at the link below. Posts for both blogs are published on Wednesdays as they are ready to be published. Time between posts could be weeks or months.


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A web host transfer made some posts disappear. Luckily, I copied each post and emailed it to myself. Since I alternated success and failure posts, I will have to remove posts and republish them in success and failure order. I will do this as I have time. Apologies.